How to make natural ink from Sumac

A natural ink Sumac recipe for the in-between time of spring.

It is that time of year where the snow is melting and hints of green life are starting to appear, but plants that provide us with ink are in low supply. This is when the long-suffering Sumac can provide us with a pop of colour.

Sumac grows in abundance; the berries and leaves are high in tannins and they can be used for ink all year round. Tannins are a group of chemicals that are pale-yellow to light-brown that are found in plant cells, especially in leaves, bark and fruit. Tannins discourage fruit-eating animals from eating the fruit until the seeds are mature and ready for dispersal. As the fruit ripens, the tannin content lessens. The tannins in sumac berries and leaves help create durable, long lasting colours.
Sumac berries also store well. The berries can be harvested in the summer when they are ripe and then stored indefinitely in paper bags. Always remember to leave the area where you forage as untouched as possible and to leave ample berries behind, as Sumac serves primarily as a winter emergency food for wildlife.

A few notes about this recipe. Water or vinegar can be used as a base of this ink but I have used vinegar to help intensify the colour. Please refer to my previous blog post if you have questions about alum, gum arabic or how to preserve your ink .


3 cups cleaning vinegar (vinegar intensifies the colour)

3 cups fresh sumac berries and leaves (use your hands to remove the berries from the stems)

2 tsp alum

1 tsp gum Arabic powder

1 clove

Materials: *keep these materials ONLY for making inks *

stainless steel or glass (these are nonreactive materials) pot, lid, bowl, jar, stirring spoon and fork

fine mesh strainer

cheese cloth (enough to line the strainer)

rubber gloves

glass jar with tight fitting lid

small funnel


-simmer the berries in vinegar and alum, stirring as needed until you reach the desired colour (about ½ an hour) be sure to keep the

*ensure that you are in a well-ventilated area and keep a lid on the pot to avoid breathing in the fumes.

-turn off the heat and leave overnight (not necessary but may help form a darker color)

-line the strainer with cheesecloth and place over the bowl

-pour the berries and ink into the fine mesh strainer and allow the ink to drain

-using your rubber gloves, gather the cheese cloth around the berries and squeeze out any excess ink

-dispose of the strained sumac and wash out the cheesecloth

-place the filter in the lid of a glass jar and line the filter with the cheesecloth

-pour the ink into the filter (repeat if necessary to remove any little bits of plant matter)

-whisk in gum Arabic a little at a time with a fork until dissolved

*if it is not dissolving, heat the ink again but don’t bring to a boil*

-when cool, add in a clove

-make sure that there is no air space inside the bottle (to help prevent mold growth)

-secure the lid and refrigerate to help preserve

-shake before use

* the pink sumac ink dries to a brownish pink colour on watercolour paper and remains peachy/pink on natural fabrics/paper


Alum acts a mordant

Gum Arabic thickens, helps with controlling ink flow, binds the ink to the paper and helps preserve

adding a Clove helps to prevents mold

How to Make Green Ink with Grass and Water

How to make green ink with two simple ingredients: grass and water.

I set out to write this blog post before the snow settles on the ground here in Canada. We did experience our first snowflakes of the year last night, so I finally felt “the push” to post this recipe. I first heard about transforming grass into ink when I watched an online Zoom lecture by Marjorie Morgan. Marjorie is a natural ink maker, artist, printmaker and environmentalist. I highly recommend watching this workshop if you are interested in learning more about Natural Inks. Making Ink with Natural Materials Zoom Lecture/Demonstration for Greenfield Community College on 9/23/20!

Making Ink with Natural Materials by Marjorie Morgan

Now let’s talk a bit about what makes grass green. To break it down simply, grass leaves collect energy from sunlight through photosynthesis. The photosynthesizing chlorophyll in the leaf gives grass its green color. The grass ink recipe that I will share with you today creates a vibrant green ink that is such a beautiful and simple way to begin your natural ink journey.

Ingredients and Materials:

fresh grass


a blender (I use a Magic Bullet that I keep for ink-making only)

a funnel and coffee filter or a panty hose sock or a piece of cheesecloth/fabric and an elastic

a glass jar with a lid

a spoon or fork

paper (try different types i.e. watercolour paper and/or natural paper)

brush and/or eye dropper

a rag

pencil/pen and label

clove (optional)


-Grab 2 handfuls of fresh grass.

-Put the grass in your blender and add a little bit of water.

-Turn your blender on and blend until you get a rich green liquid. If the grass is struggling to blend, you may need to stir it up and blend more or add a little bit more water (it will smell like a freshly mowed lawn).

-Cover a glass jar with a filter of your choice: a funnel and coffee filter, a panty hose sock or a piece of cheesecloth/fabric secured with an elastic.

-Pour the ink into the glass jar through the filter.

-Using a paint brush, your fingers or an eye dropper, experiment with your new green ink on paper. You may wish to spray water onto your paper and then add drops of the ink and watch the ink travel into and across the water.

-When you are finished painting with the ink, label the glass jar, put the lid on and refrigerate.

The ink makes a rich dark green (that darkens as it dries) and lasts surprisingly long. Keep out of direct sunlight to prolong the colour on paper. You may wish to add a clove to your jar to help preserve the ink.

INKPRINTS of time: A Serendipitous Collaboration

trusting the unforeseen

Late January, a friend and I drove a few towns over to visit the lovely little village of Elora. The shop of LemonTree Interiors & Co was first on our list to visit. As we were parking, I recognized Sophia from her Instagram account. You need to understand that Sophia is a bit of a design “rock star” to me, so I was a tad nervous to introduce myself. I noticed that she was getting boxes out of her car, so I pulled up my “big girl” pants and asked if she was indeed Sophia of LemonTree Interiors and if she needed some help. Sophia gracefully embraced my fan-girl approach and welcomed us into her quaint little shop.

As we entered, I was swept away by the elegant curation of vintage, sustainable and modern decor. Naturally, I began chatting about a new stamping ink that I was working on and then Sophia got a twinkle in her eye and reached into a drawer. She pulled out gorgeous teak stamps that had been hand carved in India and said that she had been waiting for “just the right moment” to unearth the stamps.

I left the shop that day with a few decor treats for myself, a bag full of teak stamps and a sense of excitement for our serendipitous art collaboration which we would later name INKPRINTS of time.

Let me tell you a bit about my process in creating these pieces. Crafting my stamping ink from lampblack soot is a slow and intensive process, but it never fails to reward me with a rich, velvety black. I add in a few other secret ingredients to ultimately form a vegan, sustainably sourced and archival ink. When I paint the ink onto the antique stamps it creates pure “black” magic.

The paper is created by Canadian based company Papeterie Saint Armand. It is a flax/cotton canal paper fashioned from left over straw that is not composted in farm fields. This rough paper is made by mixing the beaten straw with rags. No bleach, chemicals or cooking is required. I hand-deckled the edges to create an unpolished juxtaposition with the black frame.

Inkprints of Time speaks of trusting the process. This series honors the idea that concepts can simmer until “the moment” arrives. For both Sophia and I, the moment arose with a serendipitous encounter that developed into these ink-prints that embrace time honoured traditions and pay homage to slow artisanal process.

To purchase these 14” x 14” framed pieces as either a set or as individual pieces, head over to LemonTree Interiors & Co where you will be delighted and inspired.

Answering your questions about Natural Inks

natural inks Q&A

acorn, wild grape and avocado ink

A few months ago, in the heart of Covid lockdown, I did an Instagram Live with Paige of @distillingnature . We answered your burning questions about creating and painting with natural inks, and I decided to post my answers for those of you who missed it.

My foraging kit

I’d love to know what to forage for in the different seasons.

What a fabulous question! Perhaps this can be an on going book-project for me! I would pick up a field guide for your region from your local library, bookstore, or online, and study up on regional flora. If you are from Ontario, Canada, I post my journey with foraging flowers and berries during the different seasons. For instance, Coltsfoot flowers are emerging now and make a lovely lime/yellow ink. I also consult a plant identification APP called “Picture This” to help identify plants and determine the toxicity of plants that I discover.

Coltsfoot flowers in early spring

What are the rules for foraging?

A common rule for ethical foraging is to collect 1/10 to 1/3 of any particular patch. Also, consider the life cycle of the plant. For example, snipping an elder tree of all those lovely white blossoms in spring will mean no berries come fall. Only harvest what you truly need. Exercising restraint is sometimes difficult, but it is a key trait of an ethical forager. I keep a foraging kit in my car that includes hiking shoes, a pair of garden gloves, shears and a basket or a bag and a pencil and a journal to take notes. If you are concerned about trespassing, it always feels better to ask permission. I have had so many interesting discussions about making ink this way. And people are generally helpful and interested in the idea of making ink from natural materials.

Jewelweed flowers

Where do you get your material?

  • I find all my cooking materials (pots, pans, spoons, strainers) second hand and keep them separate from my everyday kitchen materials.
  • I forage for most of my botanical supplies from my property or local roadsides. I make a lot of ink from avocado shells and pits that my family has eaten and from a local café. I create rooibos ink from organic rooibos tea that I have sent to me.
  • I have purchased the gum arabic and alum from Amazon but I am looking to support local art businesses going forward.
  • I purchase baking soda, cleaning vinegar and distilled water from my local grocery stores.
  • I purchase the bottles from a local business Botanic Planet who ship to the US and Canada and have a pick up option.

How do you store your natural inks before and after they are made?

I store walnuts, pine cones, acorns and sumac in labelled paper bags in my studio. DO NOT LEAVE FORAGED PLANTS IN PLASTIC BAGS because mold sets in pretty quickly. I freeze berries, avocado pits/shells, sunflower seeds and grapes until I need them. I also freeze flowers. After the inks are created, I store them in the fridge.

How do we stop inks from getting moldy?

I preserve my inks with 99.9% Isopropyl Alcohol if I am selling them, but you can also use different purity levels of alcohol (ie. 60%) or preserve with a clove, a few drops of wintergreen oil or thyme oil. It is also important to store your inks in a refrigerator (labelled so that you or your family don’t ingest the inks accidentally).

Are there alternatives to Gum Arabic?

Gum Arabic thickens, helps with controlling ink flow, binds the ink to the paper and helps preserve. Gum arabic is sometimes called acacia gum or acacia powder and it is made from the natural hardened sap of two types of wild Acacia trees in the Sahara region of Africa. Gum arabic comes in a liquid or powder form. The liquid is easier to work with and ensures that the gum arabic is evenly distributed in your ink, but it is consequently more expensive. 

  • A possible alternative to gum Arabic is aquafaba. Aquafaba is the cooking liquid found in tinned beans and other legumes like chickpeas or the liquid left over from cooking your own. It can be used to replace egg whites in many sweet and savoury recipes. Its unique mix of starches, proteins, fibre and sugars, which are left in the water after cooking, gives aquafaba a wide range of emulsifying, foaming, binding and thickening properties.
  • Another possible alternative to gum arabic is the grapevine,Vitis riparia, or frost/riverbank grape and is found throughout North America. The sap from the grapevine’s stem resembles that of gum arabic. The polysaccharide from the grapevine’s stem may be made into a white powder, viscous liquid or clear gel.
Ink making supplies

Are there different alum qualities. How does it matter and how can I know if it’s a good quality?

The specific compound In alum is hydrated potassium aluminium sulfate. Alum can sometimes be found in your local supermarket, as it is often used in canning and preserving. As for different alum qualities, I don’t have an answer, but I would like to find a more “natural” substitution for alum.

Alum is also regarded as the safest of the common mordants, but you should still take precautions.

Always remember:

  • Never use the same pots and utensils for dyeing that you use for cooking.
  • Wear rubber gloves and use a face mask when measuring mordants and dyes.
  • Work in a well-ventilated area.
  • Dispose of used mordants and dye baths safely.

Is soda ash safe?

I use a small amount of soda ash in my avocado shell and pit inks. It acts as an alkali mordant to help bring out a more vibrant colour. You can make your own by heating heat baking soda in a 200°F oven for an hour. Soda ash is the term used to describe sodium carbonate. This sodium salt, a derivative of carbonic acid, is a common ingredient used to manufacture paper, powdered soaps and glass. Its purpose is to raise the alkaline level. Soda ash is also used to elevate total alkaline levels and soften the water found in swimming pools and spas by slightly raising the pH levels in the water. When using soda ash to make inks, it is important that you wear gloves, turn on your kitchen vent fan (or open a window), and cover the cooking ink to avoid breathing in the fumes. Here are a few safety tips:

  • Wear protective gloves when working with or disposing of soda ash to prevent skin irritation.
  • Be careful not to let soda ash splash into your eyes to avoid eye irritation.
  • Refrain from breathing in soda ash dust, vapors or mist to avoid irritation of the respiratory tract. Consider wearing a protective breathing mask.
art tools

I keep getting a watercolour type liquid no matter how much material or how much I reduce it.

If you are looking to thicken an ink, you can add more gum arabic. It can be a bit time consuming to whisk in gum arabic powder but I have a few tips.  I like to heat the ink up before slowly sifting in the gum arabic. I also have used a mini food blender to quickly mix in the gum arabic and then I filter the ink to separate out the bubbles formed. You can also try using a gum arabic syrup:

Directions to make Gum Arabic Syrup:

TIME: 2-3 hours

-heat ¼ cup of distilled water in a small pot to a near-boil (about 3 minutes)

-measure out 4 Tbsp of gum arabic powder in a small glass jar and slowly stir in the water. Continue to stir until all of the powder is integrated (you may have some small white clumps).

-let the mixture sit for 2 to 3 hours.

-when the mixture appears more like a gel, stir again to smooth out the mixture. (It is ok if there is a small layer of white foam.)

-skim off small clumps or foam. When not in use, store in the refrigerator for up to 5 months.

How do I get the ink to bleed like normal ink?

I would say that you can experiment with many elements to try and get the ink to the right consistency for your needs. The amount of gum arabic can be a factor with how the paper absorbs the ink, as well as the type of paper used. You can also add water to the paper and observe how the ink moves or absorbs the water.

choke cherry ink

How colourfast are natural inks? What do they look like after years?

First of all, the only ink that I can guarantee to remain permanent is black ink created from lampblack. Second, I always recommend that paintings created with natural inks be kept out of direct sunlight. And finally, I like to transform the question into a reframing of our goals of “permanence”. I like to refer to artwork painted with natural inks as “living works of art.” The potential for colours to change over time can be reframed as following a pattern of the natural world which holds a sort of excitement in and of itself. But I also understand the concern for both artists and customers to feel secure that the artwork that they sell or purchase maintain its colour integrity. I also have a hunch that inks made with modifiers (ie baking soda and vinegar) are more likely to change colour overtime. I am fairly confident in the colour-fastness of inks made from items with strong tannins. Tannins are found commonly in the bark of trees, wood, leaves, buds, stems, fruits, seeds, roots, and plant galls. In all of these plant structures, tannins help to protect the individual plant species. (As an aside, unripened fruits are high in tannin content. The high tannin content discourages fruit eating animals from consuming the fruit until the seeds are mature and ready for dispersal. As the fruit ripens the tannin content lessens.) Inks made from avocado, walnut, sumac and oak galls are all rather lightfast because they contain large amount of tannins. I have found that the yellow vibrancy remains from ink made from goldenrod and alum and ink made from riverbank grapes remains vibrant as well.

A “non toxic” sealing product that I use called SpectraFix can help against fading and they hope to offer a specific varnish with UV blocking properties in the future. It seals soft/oil pastel, chalk, watercolour, charcoal and my black lampblack ink without the nasty smells from an aerosol spray. They recommend two coats and about three minutes in between coats. It curls the watercolour paper but I then flatten the paper by spraying a light spray of water on the back of the painting and then placing it between heavy books.
I recently discovered and ordered a Natural Varnish from Natural Earth Paint and I am excited to try out this product on canvas and wood surfaces.
You may also want to invest in framing your artwork with UV-filtering glass that can be found in framing stores and most importantly, do not hang artwork in direct sunlight.

ink kit

How to Paint with Natural Inks: Part 1

A few tips on painting with natural inks.

First of all, in my mind, there is no right or wrong way to paint with natural inks. I have developed a system that works for me, that I will share, but I also look forward to hearing how others approach painting with inks.


-watercolour paper
-bottle caps, lids or watercolour palette
-jar of water
-spray bottle
-palette knife
-2 eye droppers (one for water and one for the ink)
-a few paint brushes (I like an angle brush for applying ink)
-rocks (to weigh the paper down)

The first thing is to “set the mood”. Not to get too “woo” on you, but choosing music that puts you into a “flow” state will help your hands work with the fluidity of the inks.
Pour a small amount of your ink (you can always add more) into a bottle cap, lid or watercolour palette. Have a bottle of water on hand and a rag to dry off your brush.
Depending on the style of art that you hope to paint, will also determine how you apply the inks. If you are creating realistic and detailed art, then adding water may not be necessary at all. I work in an abstract style that embraces the movement of liquids, so adding water is an integral part of my process.

I usually begin by spraying or dropping water in a few places on my watercolour paper and then use my palette knife or my fingers to spread the water around. I love to create magical moments by using an eye dropper to drop the ink onto the water and watch it travel into and along the water trails. I take a rather intuitive approach and use either my palette knife, paint brush or fingers to spread the ink or help the ink along on its journey with the water.

If I am trying to create a more solid or intense colour, I use an eye dropper or paint brush and directly apply the ink to the watercolour paper.


I also like to use rocks not only for colour inspiration and as a way to “ground” my thoughts in natural objects, but also as paper weights. The more water that I add to the paper, the more that the watercolour paper will buckle. I place rocks on the paper to counteract the buckling. This way, I don’t bother with painting tape and the risk of ripping my painting. Once the painting is completely dry, I will flip over the painting, spray a bit of water on the backside, iron it flat and then quickly place it under heavy books to flatten it.

Note: If you are dipping your paint brush directly into the ink bottle, be sure to wash your brush out before dipping it into another ink. Simply dip your brush into your jar of water and then dry it on your rag. When you are finished painting, you can wash out your paint brushes with a little bit of dish soap.

Those are a few of my methods of working with natural inks. Do you have any tips for painting with natural inks?